(to management improvement) - an approach based on
learning from the evaluation of past experience.
a system of
flashing lights used to indicate production status in one or more work centers;
the number of lights and their possible colors can vary, even by work center
within a plant; however, the traditional colors and their meanings are:
green – no problems
yellow – situation requires attention
red – production stopped; attention urgently needed
a form of
automation in which machinery automatically inspects each item after producing
it, ceasing production and notifying humans if a defect is detected; Toyota
expands the meaning of jidohka to include the responsibility of all workers to
function similarly, i.e. to check every item produced and to make no more if a
defect is detected, until the cause of the defect has been identified and
manufacturing technique of preventing mistakes by designing the manufacturing
process, equipment, and tools so that an operation literally cannot be performed
incorrectly; an attempt to perform incorrectly, as well as being prevented, is
usually met with a warning signal of some sort; the term "poka-yoke" is
sometimes referred to as a system where only a warning is provided.
an approach in which manufacturing work centers
[cells] have the total capabilities needed to produce an item or group of
similar items; contrasts to setting up work centers on the basis of similar
equipment or capabilities, in which case items must move among multiple work
centers before they are completed; the term group technology is sometimes used
to distinguish cells that produce a relatively large family [group] of similar
Check Points and Control Points –
used in measuring the progress of improvement-related activities between
different managerial levels. Check points represent process-oriented criteria.
Control points represent result-oriented criteria. What is the check point to a
manager becomes a control point to the next-level manager. For this reason,
check points and control points are also used in
Continuous Improvement Firm (CIF)
– a firm continuously improving on the value that customers perceive in its
products due to improvements in productivity initiated by the members of the
general work force. Productivity in CIF is broadly defined to include all facets
of product quality as well as output per worker. A basic operating principle of
the CIF is that improvements in product quality often produce simultaneous
reductions in costs. The ultimate competitive goal of the CIF is the ability to
produce consumer goods on a custom basis for almost instantaneous delivery at
costs lower than those featured by standard mass production firms. The flexible
CIF ideally produces to customer demand. The key to achieving this flexibility
and lower unit cost lies in generalization of the work force.
(See also "3 Basic Principles of Continuous Improvement")
Culture: 8 Key Elements
Cross-Functional Management – the inter-departmental coordination
required to realize the policy goals of a Kaizen and Total Quality Control (TQC)
program. After corporate strategy and planning are determined, top management
sets objectives for cross-functional efforts that cut laterally throughout the
organization. Cross functional management is the major organizational tool for
realizing TQC improvement goals. It is distinguished by an intensive focus on
the follow-through to achieve the success of goals and measures...
Company-Wide Quality Control (CWQC) –
see "Total Quality Control (TQC)"
8 Rules for Quality Management
time to complete an operation on a product. This in NOT the same as
takt time, which is the allowable time to produce one product at the rate
customers are demanding it.
– the concept of continuously rotating wheel used by
W. E. Deming to emphasize
the necessity of constant interaction among research, design, production, and
sales so as to arrive at an
improved quality that
satisfies customers (see
(to management improvement) – tries to build a better approach through
Manufacturing System (FMS)
integrated manufacturing capability to produce small numbers of a great variety
of items at low unit cost; an FMS is also characterized by low changeover time
and rapid response time.
production scheduling / load leveling tool, essentially to distribute
kamban cards in an efficient manner.
as a part of a successful Kaizen strategy, "improvement" goes beyond the
dictionary definition of the word. Improvement is a mindset of maintaining and
improving standards. In a still broader sense, improvement can be defined as
Kaizen and Innovation, where a Kaizen strategy maintains and improves
working standards through small, gradual improvements, and innovation calls for
radical improvements as a result of large investments in technology, processes,
and/or equipment. The Kaizen strategy clearly delineates responsibilities:
workers are to maintain standards, and managers are
to improve standards. The Japanese perception of management boils down to one
precept: maintain and improve standards.
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or voluntary participation.
– a process
broadly aimed at increasing value-added and eliminating waste; a production
scheduling and inventory control technique that calls for any item needed at a
production operation - whether raw material, finished item, or anything in
between, to be produced and available precisely when needed, neither a moment
earlier nor a
moment later. JIT
was designed at Toyota specifically to cut waste in production...
– the art of something
(i.e., 'leanjutsu: the art of lean production').
rapid and radical change process, sometimes used as a precursor to
activities. (See also
the philosophy of continual improvement, that every process can and should be
continually evaluated and improved in terms of time required, resources used,
resultant quality, and other aspects relevant to the process. When applied to
the workplace, Kaizen means continuing
improvement involving everyone
managers and workers alike. Kaizen is not limited to manufacturing systems only.
It also means continuing improvement in personal life, home life, social life,
and working life.
Implementing Kaizen: 7 Conditions
communication tool in the "just-in-time" production and
inventory control system which authorizes production or movement. It was
developed by Taiichi Ohno at Toyota. Kamban is a card or signboard ( or any
other authorizing device) that is attached to specific parts in the production
line signifying the delivery of a given quantity. The quantity authorized per
individual kamban is minimal, ideally one. The number of circulating or
available kamban for an item is determined by the demand rate for the item and
the time required to produce or acquire more. This number generally is
established and remains unchanged unless demand or other circumstances are
altered dramatically; in this way inventory is kept under control while
production is forced to keep pace with shipment volume. A routine exception to
this rule is that managers and workers are continually exhorted to improve their
processes and thereby reduce the number of kamban required. When fully
implemented, kamban (the plural is the same as the singular) operates according
to the following rules:
All production and
movement of parts and material take place only as required by a downstream
operation, i.e. all manufacturing and procurement are ultimately driven by the
requirements of final assembly or the equivalent.
various formats and content as appropriate for their usage; for example, a
kamban for a vendor is different than a kamban for an internal machining
death from overwork.
the philosophy of continually reducing
waste in all areas
and in all forms; an English phrase coined to summarize Japanese manufacturing
techniques (specifically, the
Toyota Production System).
Lean Enterprise: 13 Tips
times [productive capacity, assuming 100% capacity utilization] for relatively
small units of the manufacturing process, through proper assignment of workers
and machines; ensures smooth production flow.
activities that are directed to maintaining current technological, managerial,
and operating standards.
capability to produce a variety of models, that in
fact differ in labor and material content, on the same production line; allows
for efficient utilization of resources while providing rapid response to
– the Japanese term for the industrial engineering, more properly translated as
"profit-making industrial engineering"
activities and results to be eliminated; within manufacturing,
waste, according to Shigeo Shingo, include:
production and early production
waste time spent at the machine; delays
waste involved in the movement and transportation of units
waste in processing; poor process design
waste in taking inventory
actions of people or machinery that do not add
value to the product
production of an item that is scrapped or required rework
3 Broad Types of Waste: Unreasonableness,
Inconsistence, Waste Activity)
smooth production flow, ideally one piece at a time, characterized by
synchronization [balancing] of production processes and maximum utilization of
available time, including overlapping of operations where practical.
the art of invisibility (applies to management)
(plan, do, check, action) – an adaptation of the
wheel. While the Deming wheel stresses the need for constant interaction
among research, design, production, and sales, the PDCA Cycle asserts that every
managerial action can be improved by careful application of the sequence: plan,
do, check, action.
modified PDCA to "Plan, Do, Study, Act" (PDSA)
so as to better describe the nature of
improvement. (see also
defect warning system
Policy (in Japanese
management) – describes long- and medium-range management orientations as well
as annual goals or targets. Another aspect of policy is that it is composed of
both goals and measures. Goals are usually quantitative figures established by
top management, such as sales, profit, and market share targets. Measures, on
the other hand, are the specific action programs to achieve these goals. A goal
that is not expressed in terms of such specific measures is merely a slogan. It
is imperative that top management determine both the goals and the measures and
then "deploy" them down throughout the organization.
Deployment – the process of implementing the
of a Kaizen program directly through line managers and indirectly through
Prioritization – a technique to ensure maximum utilization of resources
at all levels of management in the process of policy deployment. Top
management's policy statement must be restated at all management levels in
increasingly specific and action oriented goals, eventually becoming precise
a process for
production by reducing inventories; a manufacturing planning system based on
communication of actual real-time needs from downstream operations ultimately
final assembly or the equivalent
opposed to a push system which schedules upstream operations according to
theoretical downstream results based on a plan which may not be current.
refers to the five words seiri,
seiton, seison, seiketsu, shitsuke. These words are
shorthand expressions for principles of maintaining an effective, efficient
eliminating everything not required for the work being performed
placement and arrangement of equipment and material
tidiness and cleanliness
ongoing, standardized, continually improving seiri, seiton, seison
discipline with leadership
concepts, the 5S can be interpreted narrowly or broadly, depending on
circumstances of their use.)
(standardize, do, check, action) – a refinement of
PDCA Cycle wherein management decides first to
establish the standard before performing the regular PDCA function.
the name of a
Japanese management practice taken from the Japanese words "sei", which means
manufacturing, and "ban", which means number. A Seiban number is assigned to all
parts, materials, and purchase orders associated with a particular customer job,
or with a project, or anything else. This enables a manufacturer to track
everything related with a particular product, project, or customer. It also
facilitates setting aside inventory for specific projects or priorities. That
makes it great for project and build-to-order manufacturing.
one who provides
information; a teacher, instructor, or rabbi.
to change over a machine or process from one item or operation to the next item
or operation; can be divided into two types:
setup work that can be done only when the machine or process is not actively
engaged in production; OR
setup work that can be done concurrently with the machine or process performing
– a process for
improving production by reducing inventories
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optimizing the number of workers in a work center to meet the type and volume of
demand imposed on the work center; shojinka requires workers trained in multiple
disciplines; work center layout, such as U-shaped or circular, that supports a
variable number of workers performing the tasks in the layout; the capability to
vary the manufacturing process as appropriate to fit the demand profile.
Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED)
changing a die on a forming or stamping machine in a minute or less; broadly,
the ability to perform any setup activity in a minute or less of machine or
process downtime; the key to doing this is frequently the capability to convert
internal setup time to external setup time; variations on SMED include:
performing a setup activity in a single-digit number of minutes, i.e. fewer than
One touch exchange
of die (OTED)
literally, changing a die with one physical motion such as pushing a button;
broadly, an extremely simple procedure for performing a setup activity.
takt, is a German
term for rhythm. Takt time is the allowable time to produce one product at the
rate customers are demanding it. This is NOT the same as
cycle time, which is the normal time to complete an operation on a product
(which should be less than or equal to takt time).
proposal, proposition, or suggestion. A
teian system can be likened to a system which allows and encourages workers
to actively propose process and product improvements.
Quality Control (TQC) -
organized Kaizen activities involving everyone in the company - managers and
workers - in a totally integrated effort toward improving performance at every
level. This improved performance is directed toward satisfying such
cross-functional goals as quality, cost, scheduling, manpower development, and
new product development. It is assumed that these activities ultimately lead to
increased customer satisfaction. (Also referred to as CWQC – Company-Wide
Areas Targeted by TQM in Japan
changed from the true form, Toyoda, meaning abundant rice field, by the
Toyota marketing department. Toyoda is the family name of the founders of the
Toyota Motor Company.
The Toyota Way: 14 Principles
Toyota Production System – see "Lean
– world class
manufacturing is the philosophy of being the best, the fastest, and the lowest
cost producer of a product or service. It implies the constant improvement of
products , processes, and services to remain an industry leader and provide the
best choice for customers, regardless of where they are in the process.